Tags: danish

The extended etymology for Ego, Εγώ ( I )


The Oxford Etymologic Dictionary (OED) considers Ego / I as if it were a self-standing word developed within the Germanic and 'Indo-European' languages with a mere meaning of 'I / me / self, myself':[Spoiler (click to open)]

I (pron.)
12c., a shortening of Old English ic, the first person singular nominative pronoun, from Proto-Germanic *ek (source also of Old Frisian ik, Old Norse ek, Norwegian eg, Danish jeg, Old High German ih, German ich, Gothic ik), from PIE *eg- "I," nominative form of the first person singular pronoun (source also of Sanskrit aham, Hittite uk, Latin ego (source of French Je), Greek ego, Russian ja, Lithuanian aš).
Reduced to i by mid-12c. in northern England, later everywhere; the form ich or ik, especially before vowels, lingered in northern England until c. 1400 and survived in southern dialects until 18c. It began to be capitalized mid-13c. to mark it as a distinct word and avoid misreading in handwritten manuscripts.

ego (n.) by 1707, in metaphysics, "the self; that which feels, acts, or thinks," from Latin ego "I" (cognate with Old English ic; see I); its use is implied in egoity.

местоим., укр. я, др.-русск. язъ, я (и то и другое – в Мстислав. грам. 1130 г.; см. Обнорский – Бархударов I, 33), ц.-сл. азъ ἐγώ, реже ѩзъ (см. Дильс, Aksl. Gr. 77), болг. аз, яз (Младенов 702), сербохорв. jа̑, словен. jàz, jâ, чеш. já, др.-чеш. jáz (совр. чеш. форма – с начала ХIV в.), слвц. jа, др.-пол. jaz, пол., в.-луж., н.-луж. jа, полаб. joz, jо.
Праслав. *аzъ отличается своим вокализмом от родственных форм, ср. др.-лит. еš, лит. àš, лтш. еs, др.-прус. еs, аs, др.-инд. ahám, авест. azǝm, др.-перс. аdаm, арм. еs, венет. еχо, гр. ἐγώ, лат. еgо, гот. ik "я". Наряду с и.-е. *еǵ- (гр., лат., герм.), существовало и.-е. диал. *eǵh- (др.-инд., венет.). Недоказанной является гипотеза о существовании *ō̆go наряду с *еgō на основе слав. аzъ и хетт. uk, ug "я" (Мейе – Эрну 342 и сл.; см. Вальде – Гофм. I, 395 и сл.). Не объяснена еще достоверно утрата конечного -z в слав.; весьма невероятно, чтобы она совершилась по аналогии местоим. tу (напр., Ягич, AfslPh 23, 543; Голуб – Копечный 147), а также чтобы долгота начального гласного была обусловлена долготой гласного в tу (Бругман у Бернекера, см. ниже). Более удачна попытка объяснения аzъ из сочетания а ězъ (Бернекер I, 35; Бругман, Grdr. 2, 2, 382), но см. против этого Кнутссон, ZfslPh 12, 96 и сл. По мнению Зубатого (LF 36, 345 и сл.), в этом а- представлена усилит. част. *ā, ср. др.-инд. ād, авест. āt̃, ср. также др.-инд. межд. ḗt "смотри, глядь!" из ā и id; Педерсен (KZ 38, 317) видит здесь влияние окончания 1 л. ед. ч. -ō; сомнения по этому поводу см. у Бернекера (I, 35). Для объяснения -z привлекают законы сандхи (Сольмсен, KZ 29, 79); ср. Бернекер, там же; И. Шмидт, KZ 36, 408 и сл.; Вакернагель – Дебруннер 3, 454 и сл.

ich (Ger.), Εγώ [ego] (Gr.), ego (Lat.), io (Ital.), yo (Sp.), I (Eng.), jag (Sw.), я [ja] (Slavic)...

However, should one look beyond the hypothetic *constructions, established by the German philologists in the 19th Century, one would see an obvious Nostratic relation of the above words with the meaning of ' I ' to the following words with the meaning of ' 1 (one)':

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YULE and KOLYADA (Christmas) – the Etymology


The French, the British, the Germans, the Scandinavians and the Baltic Finns call Christmas with the following word that remains from pagan times: Yule (Eng.), Jul, Julen (Sw., Dan., Norw.), Jól (Icelandic), Joulu (Finnish, Izhorian), Jõulu(d) (Estonian, Votic) - allegedly considered to be a word 'of unknown origin': https://www.etymonline.com/word/yule .

Noteworthy, however, is that the followers of the Zoroastrian (Persian, Iranian) tradition use the same name when celebrating the winter Solstice: they call the longest and darkest night of the year as Shab-e Yalda, or Shab-e Chelleh (Çillə). [Spoiler (click to open)]In Zoroastrian tradition it is considered to be a particularly inauspicious night when the evil forces of Ahriman are imagined to be at their peak. One is advised to stay awake most of the night, to avoid any misfortune. People gather in safe groups of friends and relatives, and share their last remaining fruits of the past summer. The following day (the first day of Dae month) is a holiday. The word Yalda supposedly means 'the Birth' or 'to give birth'.

It is further comparable to:
[yuladu] يولد (Arab.), [yalad] יָלַד (Hebrew) - to give birth;
[hуlad] הוּלַד (Hebrew) - was born;
[yalud] יָלוּד (Hebrew) - newborn[Spoiler (click to open)];
[eled; yaldo] יַלדו ; יֶלֶד (Hebrew) - a boy, a child
– i.e. the infant Sun, which is 'born' each year at winter solstice).
Source: https://ich-neu-mon.livejournal.com/68150.html

It is obvious that the Birth of the new Sun is exactly what the name of the holiday, the Yule, reflects.

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IPA transcription for Danish, German, others

Hello hello. I could really use some IPA transcription for how to pronounce the following names/words in their respective languages, since none of those languages are my forte and reading the phonology pages on Wikipedia is not something I really have time for on this. XD I have some idea about a few of these, but anything that can be provided would be awesome. Thank you in advance!

Danish: Aage, Blegdamsvej, Bohr, Christian, Copenhagen, Faelled, Harald, Hillerød, Margrethe, Møller, Ny Carlsberg, Tisvilde

German: Bayrischzell, Biberach, Duckwitz, Flügge, Frisch, Gammertingen, Gerlach, Göttingen, Jura, Kaufbeuren, Landau, Leiden, Leipzig, Memmingen, Peierls, Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse, Schrödinger, Swabian, Wehrmacht, Weizsäcker, Württemberg

Dutch: Goudsmit

Uncertain, but how either it would sound in either standard German or Danish: Casimir

English... ish: Heligoland

Hungarian: Szilard

(Yes, in case anyone is suspicious, this is for a production of Michael Frayn's Copenhagen.)
DK/NO munch

Seeking Danish Help

Hello all!
I'm new to this community, I saw in on the Spotlight page a while back and thought I would join because it seemed relevant to my interests.

For several years now I've been interested in learning Danish (just for fun mostly--I listen to a lot of Danish music on a daily basis and would enjoy being able to understand it).
I waited until I went to university but despite attending the largest university in America, we don't offer Danish classes.
Someone pointed me in the direction of the language learning site Livemocha but sadly they also do not offer Danish courses either.

I was wondering if anyone knew of any other websites that would be useful in helping me learn Danish?
Has anyone ever used Rosetta Stone before to learn a language/how would you rate it?

A bit of background about me:
I am a native American English speaker. I have tried to self-teach Danish but find of course the pronunciation to be difficult to grasp. I own a Danish-English dictionary, and have no problem spending money to learn the language.

Thank you all so much for your help!

turkey vulture
  • h0taru

Norwegian or Danish help needed!

Hi all,

I'm working on a research paper focusing on a 19th century needlework sampler. The only text is at the bottom, showing a date, a name and then words I don't have a clue about. :)

The name is likely of the woman who stitched the sampler; it's Caroline Magrede Nielsen. The collections' then-documenter (they acquired this piece in 1948) assumed she was Norwegian, but it seems possible that she could be Danish, too.

The last section? No one can read. The collections details says, "There are a few more words in Norwegian."

I have experience with tent stitch/cross stitch, so I looked at my macro shots and graphed it all out. The words are much clearer (no age stains, the unevenness of linen threads isn't a factor, the slight diagonal warp in some areas is negated, etc.).

I have three images of the chart (varying in size). I'm 99.9% sure I have all of the stitches in and where they should be. There are three spots where I really was not sure (there could be a stitch there, but the floss is about the same shade as the fabric. Also, these aren't from a language I have much experience with, so I couldn't use context to say, "yep, it's clearly an "m" in this word, so it IS a stitch"). The unsure spots are bright red instead of brown.

1 - Smallest image (so it's a bit less pixelated-looking). It's still a bit wide, so I'll put this one behind a cut.
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2 - Medium image; this is a thumbnail that links to the full size version.


3 - Largest image (again a thumbnail link).


Does anyone have any ideas for what the part after her name says? I've spent a few hours googling; I've searched in English and then found the translations for cross stitch, embroidery and alphabet (looking at .dk and .no websites). Thank you SO much!

Translation help

Hello all,

I am translating a 3 word document and am stumped on the following 3 words (have googeld - and used a dictionary which didn't know some of these words existed :s)

Glemmekasse - It's a place people put stuff that is forgotten. The best I can come up with is "lost and found box"
Garderobe - Basically it's the place that you leave your stuff in a night club in the door. I know I have seen this in movies 100 times but I cannot for the life of me think of what it is called.
Garderobenumre - so far i have called them coat labels - but what are the tickets called that they give you in the door, so you can pick up your stuff again?

Hoping somebody can help me out.


Danish Help & Welsh Help

Hello community!

I'm going to Copenhagen for a semester next month. I don't spean Danish yet but my Norwegian is pretty good and my Icelandic is okay, so when reading Danish is really okay for me. I struggle a bit with understanding when they speak but I'm sure I'll get used to it. Now, the real killer for me is talking! I need to listen to a lot more of that language to be able to actually talk it. Whenever I try I just end up talking Norwegian with a silly accent which might even end up sounding offensive!

I'm sure I'll be fine once I'm there. But I'm planning on taking a Greenlandic language course there which will be held in Danish and it'd be a lot handier if I'd get more than just the gist of it!
So my question is: Does anyone have a good site for watching stuff in Danish? My two textbooks and their CDs are just so horribly boring. I'd be greatly appreciated. 

My other shout of for help regards Welsh. I study with "Teach yourself Welsh" and the CD and I also got the book on grammar. While I think the books are very good, I still struggle a lot with the language. Does anyone have any helpful ideas? Anyone actually pulled off being able to speak it fluently without having to move to Wales?



A few facts:

1. In H.C. Andersen's The Snow Queen, first published in 1845, the robber maiden says "Schnipp-schnapp-schnurre-basselurre," as if making a magic spell.

2. Wikipedia has an article about a card game called Snip Snap Snorem that well predates the H.C. Andersen's text and mentions a name of an almost identical German game: Schipp-Schnapp-Schnurr-Burr-Basilorum. (smth smth rope(?) smth of kings(?))

3. Googling "basilorum" finds "Schnipp, schnapp, schnorum, Rex Basilorum" that can be interpreted to have some religious meaning, but google only finds 8 occurrences of "Rex Basilorum" proper, including a quote from a 1902 book, but all in relation to the card game.

Does anyone have an idea how a reference to King of Kings got into the name of a kids' card game, how "Rex" mutated into (or from) "Burr", and why would Andersen adopt its variant pronunciation into his books as a magic spell?
Blank Pages

Danish proverbs

There's a Danish saying that goes: "Du kan gnave længe af min røv, før du kommer til mit hjerte." I understand it literally, but I can't grasp the actual meaning. Is it meant to imply that the speaker won't take offence no matter how long s/he is picked on, or does it have a slightly more positive meaning (i.e. "you will have to work on me for a while before I'll fall in love with you")?

Another one is: "Hvis og hvis min røv var spids og fyldt med marmelade." I have no problem with understanding this one, my question is instead about how common it is. I've heard people in Denmark say the first part, but the marmalade addition I've only seen written -- but perhaps that's simply because the initial bit rhymes when spoken?
if you want communication
  • wottie

two unrelated questions

1. Since I'm going to Europe at the end of the year (yay!), I'm trying to learn as much touristy French/Italian/German/Danish as possible. I've been looking up resources but there's so much and it all looks rather similar, so I was wondering if anyone has recommendations for specific books/online resources I could check out? In particular, I'm looking to learn the sort of phrases I'd need to get around (please/thank you/money and number words/left and right/where is my hotel etc.) and I'd really like to work on having a semi-decent pronounciation, so something with tapes would be great.

2. I've recently stopped taking Japanese classes but would very much like to continue learning it independently. I use the Genki textbook (wonderful, by the way) and have access to kanji dictionaries/readers etc., but I'm worried that without regular classes/consistent communication, I'll find it harder to get used to new grammatical structures and learn new vocabulary. For anyone else who's learned a language independently, have you found it comparatively harder to stay on track? How important would you say it is to find a buddy with whom to practice dialogue/motivate each other? Any tips in general?

Thanks in advance! ♥