Sorry English learners

This is what happens when people randomly decide pronunciation. Plough is more commonly spelled plow now. There is a great video by Langfocus that explains the origins of middle and modern pronounciation. It may not have a rhyme but there are reasons including the one I mentioned above. If find it again I might post here. You can vent to me but remember I just speak English I did not create it. W

YULE and KOLYADA (Christmas) – the Etymology


The French, the British, the Germans, the Scandinavians and the Baltic Finns call Christmas with the following word that remains from pagan times: Yule (Eng.), Jul, Julen (Sw., Dan., Norw.), Jól (Icelandic), Joulu (Finnish, Izhorian), Jõulu(d) (Estonian, Votic) - allegedly considered to be a word 'of unknown origin': .

Noteworthy, however, is that the followers of the Zoroastrian (Persian, Iranian) tradition use the same name when celebrating the winter Solstice: they call the longest and darkest night of the year as Shab-e Yalda, or Shab-e Chelleh (Çillə). [Spoiler (click to open)]In Zoroastrian tradition it is considered to be a particularly inauspicious night when the evil forces of Ahriman are imagined to be at their peak. One is advised to stay awake most of the night, to avoid any misfortune. People gather in safe groups of friends and relatives, and share their last remaining fruits of the past summer. The following day (the first day of Dae month) is a holiday. The word Yalda supposedly means 'the Birth' or 'to give birth'.

It is further comparable to:
[yuladu] يولد (Arab.), [yalad] יָלַד (Hebrew) - to give birth;
[hуlad] הוּלַד (Hebrew) - was born;
[yalud] יָלוּד (Hebrew) - newborn[Spoiler (click to open)];
[eled; yaldo] יַלדו ; יֶלֶד (Hebrew) - a boy, a child
– i.e. the infant Sun, which is 'born' each year at winter solstice).

It is obvious that the Birth of the new Sun is exactly what the name of the holiday, the Yule, reflects.

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Variable initial elements in words ("idle prosthesis") and unrecognized related words

A word that does not have strong ties and roots in a language, having lost its primary meaning, becomes a simple 'nominal unit'. It falls out of the language system, turning into a dull nameplate, one of many in a long line of similar gray and rootless icons, similar to prison numbers on the backs of prisoners. And then the consideration of convenience and usefulness commences to play its role.

The 'nameplate' word is being brought into line with this requirement. It is 'cut' and 'polished' in such a way that individual sounds 'fly off' from it in splinters and further distance it from other words within the framework of one language, as well as the entire community of languages.

In Russian such words, for example, include the word КРОВ [КРОВ] ('roof') with the initial sound "K" - but the relation to the English word ROOF is not recognized by philologists of official linguistic schools.

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Etymology for word LUNCH

LUNCH - midday meal. Scholars explain its etymology as follows: 'Recorded since 1580; presumably short for luncheon, but earliest found also as lunshin, lunching, equivalent to lunch +‎ -ing, with the suffix -ing later modified to simulate a French origin. Lunch is possibly a variant of lump (as hunch is for hump, etc.), or represents an alteration of nuncheon, from Middle English nonechenche (“light mid-day meal”) (see nuncheon) and altered by northern English dialect lunch (“hunk of bread or cheese”) (1590), which perhaps is from lump or from Spanish lonja (“a slice”, literally “loin”).

However, LUNCH, being the mid-day meal, much more likely comes from:

launags (Latv.) - afternoon snack;
lȭnag (Livonian) - south-east; lȭnagist (Livonian) - mid-day meal;
lõuna (Est.) - south and mid-day meal;
lounas (Fin.) - south-west and mid-day meal;
lõunad, lõunaz (Votic) - south and mid-day meal;
lounad, loune(d) (Izhorian) - south and mid-day meal;
lounat (Karelian) - evening and main meal;
lun (Komi) - day and daylight;
lun-aǯ́e (Udmurt) - during the day.

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Pharao's “beard” - the POTURU lip piercing of Zo'é tribe in Amazonia - and POTERE (POWER)

The “beard” sticking out of the Egyptian pharaohs' chins is strikingly reminiscent of poturu, a cone-shaped “lip plug” made of bone or wood and inserted through the lower lip of everyone in a small Amazonian Indian tribe (self-name: Zo'é - 'we','us'- as opposed to non-Indians, enemies; external name - Poturu, in honor of the distinguishing attribute of Zoe; the tribe counts to only 160 people, and contacts with the tribe were only established in 1987); poturu is inserted when a child reaches the age of 7-9 years (which is one of the most important ceremonies, and a rite of passage for children); poturu is gradually enlarged throughout one's life; most adults wear poturu of approx. 18 cm in length and 2.5 cm in width: .

Most of the South American Indians do not have beard and other face hair. Poturu for Zo'é likely serves as a 'substitute' of what they do not have, but have seen on some foreign teachers long time ago - and wished to have, too.

And - the Egyptian pharaos seem to have belonged to the same beardless race as the Indians (also having the very same distinct face characters)!

And what else is the POTURU other than Ital. POTERE, Port., Sp. PODER - the POWER ?!

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Asian-European lexical convergence among the names of historically important birds.

Below is the text of my presentation at the 2nd International Conference "The Great Eurasian Partnership: Linguistic, Political and Pedagogical Aspects", arranged to commemorate the 90th anniversary of Moscow Oblast State University (MGOU).

Abstract. The similarity of the sound of a number of names of the same birds between Asian and European languages testifies to more ancient linguistic connections and influences than it is commonly believed when establishing lexical borrowings.

Keywords: names of birds, Arabic, language classification.

Non-Greek substrate lexical layer in Greece


To the memory of my friend, prof. Leo Klein (1927 - 2019)

The Greek language has a “powerful substrate lexical layer related to local natural conditions and high culture of the peninsula’s early civilization,” “not from native Greek lexics, but from the words of SOME OTHER non-Greek language of a people for whom Greece was a native nature, whereas for the Greeks it is not." L.S. Klein, Ancient Migrations, 2007.

Which "SOME OTHER"?? Why is the Odyssey full of Finnic words (See ?

Why the name Olympus, the highest mountain peak (in Greece - 2917 m, in Cyprus - 1952 m), is perfectly explained from Fin. ylempi - 'the highest'? ( -mpi being the superlative ending).

Why does Macedonia correspond to Est. mägedene - 'mountainous' ?

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Words get their birth and die out. The life expectancy, the vitality of each word depends on the need for it and on its ease 'in circulation'. Words are like coins, money in circulation. The latter developed from shells and skins to metals, then to coins, later - to paper bills, thereafter - to electronic money.

So are the words. All of them have 'a service life' and then get replaced with more convenient and useful ones in new circumstances and new reality.

The 'long-livers' among the words are conjunctions, prepositions, suffixes, pronouns and articles. They are the ones which are most in demand, and therefore are present in any texts. They inevitably become the most convenient to use, since over the centuries they have managed to be 'polished' in millions of lips - like pebbles polished by waves and sand. These words are always the shortest, easy to pronounce. And the brevity and simplicity of a word are the apparent signs of its antiquity.

Valeriy D. Osipov, PhD

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Each word consists of two merged halves: the sound and the meaning (i.e. the form and the content), like a person with its body and soul.

Human owes his birth to his/her father and mother. The word is also born by the fusion of meaning (the masculine beginning) and an external, "bodily" shell (the feminine beginning), that is, when the separated and isolated unit of meaning acquires its outer shell and is fixed inside of its verbal and written forms.

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