2. I lack conjunctions and adverbs. I have "and" and "but." I don't know whether there's a good analogue to "However," (used at the beginning of the sentence) or if one just uses "but." The big thing I'm missing (although any other words which help join thoughts/sentences and are commonly used would be great) is an equivalent to "Therefore." I learned "Entonces," early, but that seems to really be "Then," not "Therefore." You can say, "No estoy trabajando," and "¿Entonces, por qué estás aquí?" but that's not quite the same thing. Any suggestions?
3. Last question, not language-learning advice. I used to work with a kid who was a street rat (horrible history, seriously) from...some Spanish-speaking Latin American country. He spoke a very slangy poor-urban version of the country's dialect, and I worked with him so much that I started to pick it up when I was using any butchered Spanish with him. The most notable thing about it to me, from my point of almost absolute ignorance, was the way a lot of consonants got blurred almost out of existence. There wasn't a glottal stop, there was just only the faintest hint that there might have been a consonant there before moving on to the next vowel sound. I remember this best with b's and v's, but I think it also happened with hard g's and with d's. D definitely made the shift to the 'th' sound (from an English-speaker's point of view of what those things sound like) but it also all-but disappeared quite often.
I'm wondering where he was from. My best recollection suggests either Colombia or the Dominican Republic, but both of those could be completely wrong. Does that blurring/softening of consonants sound like an identifiable characteristic to anyone?
(I hope that poor damned kid is doing all right. I sort of doubt it, but I hope it. But that's not about language.)