April 29th, 2011

English syntax/conjugation question

Dear Glossaphiloi,

The sentence is:
We have known this since Einstein.

Can you parse this? Is the VP here an example of present perfect? Present perfect continuous?
Also, can the referent for the deictic "we" be determined from context? It seems like it can be narrowed down to a few things (e.g., speaker plus some group the speaker belongs to, not necessarily including hearer), but nothing conclusive.

Any information appreciated.
Dark

German happy birthday

Sorry for such a silly question, but I need to know the best way to wish my cousin a happy birthday in German.

I know the words (Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag, Alles Gute zum Geburtstag, etc), but I don't know which of these phrases is most appropriate to use for a cousin I see maybe once every five years. Is one more formal than the other? Is there a better wording you could think of? If it's relevant, she's several years older than me, though I'm not sure exactly how much. I guess that tells you how close we are =/

Thanks in advance! :)

(no subject)

"art of the second half of the 19th CENTURY – the early 20th CENTURY"

OR

"art of the second half of the 19th - the early 20th CENTURIES"?

P.S. Also, what about a bigger time span -- the second half of the 18 (eighteenth) century through the early 20th century"? What would be a nice way to phrase it?