January 15th, 2011

shikasteh

http://sovet.geraldika.ru/images/lj/Fathaligrant.jpg

This official document (firman) written in shikasteh, the primary chancery script of the Qajars, declares that Fath 'Ali Shah (r. 1798-1834 CE) honours Sir Hartford Jones, the British envoy to Iran in 1809-11 CE, with an order which is depicted at the right. Does anybody possess information about this script? Any manuals or something of the kind?
Thanks in advance.
{APH} eng+lion

L'accord du passé composé??

Hey guys. I've been trying to figure out for days if Spanish has anything like past participle accord like French (and apparently, Italian) does, but I'm stuck trying to think of anything. Spanish is my first language, and I remember in primary school (I'm from Cuba btw) the teachers taught us verb tenses and shit and we had to practice and stuff, but I don't recall anything about making the past participle agree with anything??? What the lol? Also, Spanish doesn't use ser or estar for compound tenses, does it? Every single example I think of conjugates whatever verb with haber, like, "I've gone" is "He ido" (Fr: je suis allé[e]; It: sono andato/a). Boo, I feel like such a noob about my own language, but Google doesn't come up with anything explicit that tells me if we have it or not. >> The only thing that I can think of is if I'm saying stuff like, "Está muerto/a", i.e. "He/she is dead" but that's kinda different, innit? I mean, if I'm talking about the past, "muerto" doesn't change, like, "Ha muerto" (He/she/it has died). WTF??? Is the example with estar an adjective or a verb? It seems like it's an adjective, but since it's next to "estar" I'm confused, lol.

Anyways, hopefully someone here has learned Spanish "the hard way", hahaha, and can explain to me my own language. :V

P.S. I know I'm new, but I'm surprised there isn't a "verb tenses" tag? IDK about you guys, but since I'm learning French and Italian, verb tenses are the bane of my existence.

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