April 29th, 2007


Orange in South America

Me and dustinalfonso were discussing the word 'orange' and it's history, and so we'd like to know how those of you who speak South American varieties of Spanish pronounce the words for orange: the color, the tree, and the fruit. They're probably similar, but for consistency's sake I thought I'd ask for all. IPA preferable, but feel free to describe it however you must if you don't know IPA!

... Apparently in the variety of Guaraní that my field methods class is working with, the word is naráĝha máta [na'raŋha ʼmata]. naráĝha is clearly a loan, but I'm curious where the heck the /ŋ/ came from, and whether it's just the guaranization of the sounds /nh/, or if there's a reason in S. American Spanish for it.


(Oĩpa guaraníme oñe'ẽva ko atypýpe?)

Misc. notes: If it aids anyone's queries, Paraguayan Spanish and Guaraní both have an [x], but at least in the case of this dialect of Guaraní [x] is an allophone of /h/; can't comment on the phoneme/allophone status in Paraguayan Spanish though.

Conjugating verbs in the wrong language

Hello all,

I have a kind of random question. Is there a term for the act of conjugating a verb in the wrong language? For example, I and other people I know who speak Spanish will hear a Spanish sentence, and to add our own commentary take the verb and make it like English. For example, "Come esta manzana" --> "I come-ed that manzana, alright" (silly example, yes, but it's pretty silly to do it anyway). Does this have some real, linguistic term? Can it be done in other languages? Examples? :)

Newbie with a question! :O

Hi guys!

I just have a question for all of you. I'm writing a term paper having to do with English perceptions of Powhatan religion in the first few years of the Jamestown colony, and I had a sudden thought that could really help my paper along: the way Powhatan religion worked according to the English was that they had a lot of gods, but probably two main ones-- Ahone, the beneficent god who didn't need worshipping cos he was such a nice guy, and Oke (Okee, Okeus, etc) who was the easily-offended god who brought sickness, crop failure, storms, etc, and needed lots of placating. Anyway, the colonists viewed Oke as the Devil, and I just had a sudden memory way back to middle school when I was a huge Redwall fan, and one of the moles saying "boi Okey." I'm sure I've heard "by okey" or "by hokey" in other contexts, and i think (i'm not sure if i'm pulling this out of the air) that it is a name for the Devil in Appalachian folktales. Anyway, if they got it from the Powhatan it would be a fantabulous example of cross-cultural exchange. Does anyone know the etymology of the expression? I haven't been able to find anything but a vague reference to hokey in the context of meaning "fake" being short for hocus-pocus.
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(no subject)

Can anyone point me in the direction of some good articles about the acculturation model as it applies to second language acquisition? Also, if anyone can point me to where Schumann's original article on that is located on the web, that would be great.

Llid Y Bledren Dymchwelyd

es war einmal

How is es war eimal used in German to give the same sense as "once upon a time"? "Once upon a time there was a man ..." Because the phrase means "it was once," right? I'm kind of confused how it works. :-\