Translator who loves her work (perevodchik_spb) wrote in linguaphiles,
Translator who loves her work

Anyone knowledgeable about gramophones (phonographs)?

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I would call it a phonograph; that's what Edison called a device much like it. Or maybe an Edison phonograph. Though the Wikipedia article "Phonograph" mentions a version by two other inventors that was called a "graphophone."
1. The machine itself is an Edison phonograph. That one seems to be the prototype shown here:

Are you referring to a particular part of the machine? It looks like the part that holds the stylus (needle) is fixed in place, and a worm gear hand-turned with a handle both advances the cylinder and rotates it.

2. "Horn" is the word for the upside-down umbrella.
The machine is a phonograph, but I think it's missing some parts, the upper bit is the horn.
Are you talking of Sometimes it is also called a drum. It seems from direct googling that the latter term is used more often with the tinfoil media and the former with wax.