Japanese elongation of vowel and consonant sounds
There are three things I've observed when reading Japanese hiragana.
1. Sometimes, for elongating a vowel sound, the
'a / ee / oo / eh / oh' vowel is used an extra time, such as いいえ (no) Or, 大きい (big)
2. And sometimes, just this ------ is used, like ま (MA) maybe followed by ----- to indicate a longer 'ma' sound? I'm sorry, I cannot seem to find word examples of this at the moment.
3. I see that small 'tsu' っ' is also used sometimes for elongating a vowel sound, like 閉まっている ( to be closed )
So I was wondering, how do you know when to use an extra vowel, the ----- symbol, or small 'tsu' when you want to denotate the extra vowel sound?