The Graveyard Duck (golddustdreams) wrote in linguaphiles,
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Icelandic Verb Conjugation Chart

For learners of Icelandic, I've put together a concise chart for different verb endings for present and past tense, both indicative and subjunctive moods, since both of my books lacked one. I'm passing it by the community for review. If something is inaccurate, please let me know. Thanks!

Notes:

W(a) = weak verb, a-conjugation (regular endings)
W(i) = weak verb, i-conjugation (regular endings)
S = strong verb (root-vowel change, no ending in singular past indicative)
I = irregular verb (sometimes root-vowel change, regular endings in all past indicative)

Weak verbs and strong verbs exist in English too. In English, weak verbs are characterized by a dental-based ending on the verb in the past tense. The words jump/jumped, bake/baked, slap/slapped, lay/laid. English strong verbs go through a root vowel change and have no endings in the past tense. Examples are swim/swam, come/came, shine/shone, ride/rode.

Subject order is ég / þú / hún / við / þið / þau

Endings in brackets [ ] denote general patterns, but not true rules.

θ = d / t / ð (depending on the verb)
= infinitive form

IMPORTANT: NOT ALL CONJUGATIONS IN ICELANDIC ARE FORMED BY ADDING AN ENDING TO THE INFINITVE VERB STEM! Conjugations are formed by taking a verb stem and adding the ending shown on the chart. However, sometimes the root-vowel of a verb stem changes depending on certain circumstances. These vowel shifts, and when they occur must be memorized separately.


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Present Indicative:

W(a) = ‡ / -ar / -ar / -um / -ið / ‡

W(i) = -i / -ir / -ir / -um / -ið / ‡

S = - / [-ur] / [-ur ] / -um / -ið / ‡

I = - / - / - / -um / -ið / ‡

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Past Indicative:

W(a) = -aði / -aðir / -aði / -ðum / -ðið / -ðu

W(i) = -θi / -θir / -θir / -θum / -θið / -θu

S = - / [-st] / - / -um / -uð / -u

I = -i / -ir / -i / -um / -uð / -u

-------------------

Present Subjunctive:

All = -i / -ir / -i / -um / -ið / -i

-------------------

Past Subjunctive:

W(a) = -aði / -aðir / -aði / -ðum / -ðið / -ðu

W(i) = -θi / -θir / -θir / -θum / -θið / -θu

S = -i / -ir / -i / -um / -uð / -u

I = -i / -ir / -i / -um / -uð / -u

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x-posted to learn_icelandic
Tags: icelandic
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